| ЛИТЕРАТУРА ПО БИОЛОГИИ, ЭКОЛОГИИ, ФАУНЕ И СИСТЕМАТИКЕ РОДА Pheidole |
1758 - 2004
Eguchi, K. (2001). "A taxonomic study on Asian Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): New synonymy, rank changes, lectotype designations and redescriptions." Ins. Kor. 18: 1-35.
Здесь собраны из базы Formis-2003 основные работы по роду Pheidole, который там упоминается в 1873 работах). Ниже приведены только около 100 из них, включая 5 диссертаций:
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Длусский Г. М. 1976. Организация групповой фуражировки у муравья Pheidole pallidula // Групповое поведение животных: Докл. 2 Всес. конф. по поведению животных. 1976. С. 97 – 99.
Кипятков В. Е., Лопатина Е. Б. 1987. Pheidole fervida F. Smith – новый для фауны Приморского края вид муравьев, его сезонный цикл и некоторые особенности биологии // «Муравьи и защита леса»: Матер. VIII Всес. мирмекол. симп. Новосибирск, 1987. С. 145 – 149.
Baroni Urbani, C. 1995. Invasion and extinction in the West Indian ant fauna revisited: the example of Pheidole (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae,VIII: Myrmicinae, partim). Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. Ser. B (Geol. Palдontol.) 222:1-29.
Описан ископаемый вид Pheidole primigenia Baroni Urbani 1995
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Harvard University Press.
Список всех видов
Brown, W. L., Jr. (1981). "Preliminary contributions toward a revision of the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I." J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 54: 523-530.
Вид Ceratopheidole pergandei переведен в род Aphaenogaster. P. punctatissima napaea is n.syn. of P. punctatissima. P. annectens, P. p. insulana, P. p. jamaicensis, P. p. jamiensis v. barbouri, P. p. jamiensis v. praetermissa are removed from P. punctatissima & are considered forms of P. annectens. P. v. idiota v. maculifrons is n.syn. of P. v. idiota. P. cornutula, P. c. v. dentimentum, P. c. v. imbeciliis, P. hondurensis, P. s. v. elongatula, P. s. v. nassavensis, P. s. v. borinquenensis, P. s. v. nefasta are n.syn. of P. subarmata. P. fumipenis is n.syn. of P. tristis. P. nigriventris is n.syn. of P. fabricator. P. cressoni & P. ursus v. gracilinoda are n.syn. of P. ursus. P. testacea is n.syn. of P. megacephala. Смотрите PDF-копию >>>
Burkhardt, J. F. (1983). Foraging strategies in the ant, Pheidole dentata: the influence of colony size on the organization of an ant colony, M.A. thesis, Department of Zoology, Duke University. v + 56 p.
Burkhardt, J. F. (1998). "Individual flexibility and tempo in the ant, Pheidole dentata, the influence of group size." J. Insect Behav. 11: 493-505.
Bush, G.L., S.M. Case, A.C. Wilson y J.L. Patton. 1977. Rapid speciation and chromosomal evolution in mammals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74(9):3942-3946.
Calabi, P. (1985). Age and physical castes in the ant Pheidole dentata, 19th Intern. Ethol. Conf. Toulouse vol. 2, p. 351.
Calabi, P. (1986). Division of labor in the ant Pheidole dentata: the role of colony demography and behavioral flexibility, Ph.D. dissert., Boston University, 175 p.
[Dissert. Abstr. Int. B 47: 2263] [Order # 8621412]
Calabi, P. and J. F. A. Traniello (1987). Ecological correlates and behavioral flexibility of temporal and physical castes in the ant Pheidole dentata. Chemistry and biology of social insects. J. Eder and H. Rembold. Mьnchen, Verlag J. Peperny: 131-132.
Красный огненный муравей S. invicta был главным конкурентом только в одном исследованном месте. S. invicta & other factors did not cause difference in the proportion of P. dentata majors
Calabi, P. and J. F. A. Traniello (1989). "Behavioral flexibility in age castes of the ant Pheidole dentata." J. Insect Behav. 2: 663-677.
Calabi, P. and J. F. A. Traniello (1989). "Social organization in the ant Pheidole dentata -- physical and temporal caste ratios lack ecological correlates." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 24: 69-78.
Calabi, P., J. F. A. Traniello, et al. (1983). "Age polyethism: its occurrence in the ant Pheidole hortensis, and some general considerations." Psyche 90: 395-412.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1933). "Descriptions of two new ants of the genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 26: 616-618.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1952). "A new Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Florida." Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 45: 443-444.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1952). "Notes on the Pheidole pilifera (Roger) complex and a description of a new subspecies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 27: 278-280.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1953). "Studies of New Mexico ants. V. The genus Pheidole with synonymy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 28: 297-299.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1955). "Studies of New Mexico ants. XIV. A description of a new species of Pheidole Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 30: 47-49.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1956). "Observations of some members of the genus Pheidole in the southwestern United States with synonymy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 31: 112-118.
Cole, A. C., Jr. (1965). "Discovery of the worker caste of Pheidole (P.) inquilina, new combination (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58: 173-175.
Creighton, W. S. and R. E. Gregg (1955). "New and little-known species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico." Univ. Colo. Stud. Ser. Biol. 3: 1-46.
Detrain, C. (1989). Polyphenisme de la caste neutre chez Pheidole pallidula (Hymenoptera Formicidae) en relation avec la recolte de nourriture et la defense de la societe, These, Ulb Bruxelles, 193 p.
Detrain, C. and J. L. Deneubourg (1997). "Scavenging by Pheidole pallidula: a key for understanding decision-making systems in ants." Anim. Behav. 53: 537-547.
Обычные эволюционные и экологические подходы к фуражировке у социальных насекомых часто испытывают недостаток исследований на уровне и индивидуальной поведенческой сложности и социальных механизмов управления адаптивных коллективных стратегий. The prey scavenging behaviour of the dimorphic ant Pheidole pallidula was used in this study to investigate how individuals estimate the size of prey, how they modulate their behaviour and communication and how these modulations generate the diversity of collective foraging patterns. For a pile of small prey (fruit flies), the recruitment of foragers was slow because of the weak intensity of individual trail-laying behaviour and the long time spent by ants wandering around the food. In contrast, for a large prey item (a cockroach), strong recruitment was induced by ants that dashed back to the nest laying a more continuous chemical trail. Experiments with small immovable prey showed that the tractive resistance of prey was the key parameter the foragers used to estimate prey size and that it ruled their trail-laying intensity. These data allow us to generate a model about decision making in scavenging. The rules leading to collective choice in a foraging or an agonistic context are discussed. On the basis of these findings, some theoretical stances in sociobiology and some shortcomings in current approaches to cooperation in social insects are considered.
Detrain, C. and J. M. Pasteels (1991). "Caste differences in behavioral thresholds as a basis for polyethism during food recruitment in the ant, Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae)." J. Insect Behav. 4: 157-176.
Detrain, C. and J. M. Pasteels (1992). "Caste polyethism and collective defense in the ant, Pheidole pallidula: the outcome of quantitative differences in recruitment." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 29: 405-412.
Droual, R. (1983). Emigration and anti-predator behavior in the ant genus Pheidole, Ph.D. dissert., City University of New York, 93 p.
[Dissert. Abstr. Int. B 44: 1341] [Order # 8319813]
Droual, R. (1983). "The organization of nest evacuation in Pheidole desertorum Wheeler and P. hyatti Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 12: 203-208.
Droual, R. (1984). "Anti-predator behaviour in the ant Pheidole desertorum : The importance of multiple nests." Anim. Behav. 32: 1054-1058.
Eguchi, K. (1999). "Pheidole longipes (Fr. Smith) and two closely related species from Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Borneo (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Jpn. J. Syst. Entomol. 5: 97-104.
2 новых вида описаны: P. montana & P. multicoma n.sp.
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Eguchi, K. (2000). "Two new Pheidole species with a 5-segmented antennal club (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Entomol. Sci. 3: 687-692.
Обозначены лектотипы 31 азиатской формы, после изучения типовых экземпляров сведены в синонимы 9 видов, подвидов и вариаций, а формы Pheidole nodigi var.tjibodana Forel, 1905 и Pheidole sauberi subsp. sarawacana Forel, 1911 повышены до самостоятельного видового статуса. Приведены 20 рисунков большинства видов, каждый с отдельным изображением гловы в анфас и в профиль для солдат и рабочих.
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Eguchi, K. (2001). "A revision of the Bornean species of the ant genus Pheidole (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae)." Tropics Monograph Series, 2: 1-154.
Eguchi, K. (2003). "A study on the male genitalia of some Asian species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Sociobiology, 41: 317-355.
Eguchi, K. (2004). "Taxonomical revision of two wide-ranging Asian ants, Pheidole fervens and P.indica (Insecta: Hymenoptera, Formicidae), and related species." "Ann.Naturhist.Mus.Wien", 2004, Volume 105B, Pages 189 - 209. (Смотрите обзор >>>)
Fowler, H. G. (1979). "Notes on the ecology of Pheidole oxyops Forel in Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 26: 305-308.
P. oxyops colonies were common on the soil tumuli of A. sexdens nests. P. oxyops foraged competitively with A. rugosus. P. oxyops colonies were regularly raided by Labidus praedator.
Fowler, H. G. (1984). "Recruitment, group retrieval and major worker behavior in Pheidole oxyops Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Rev. Brasil. Biol. 44: 21-24.
Fowler, H. G. (1987). "The nest of Pheidole oxyops as a pitfall-trap (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Pedobiologia 30: 373-376.
Fowler, H.G. 1994. Relative representation of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in local ground ant
assemblages of the Americas. An. Biol. 19:29-37.
Gregg, R. E. (1941). The origin of castes in ants, with special reference to Pheidole morrisi (Forel), Ph.D. dissert., University of Chicago, 47 p.
Gregg, R. E. (1942). "The origin of castes in ants with special reference to Pheidole morrisi Forel." Ecology 23: 295-308.
Gregg, R. E. (1949). "A note on Pheidole (Macropheidole) rhea Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Psyche 56: 70-73.
Gregg, R. E. (1950). "A new species of Pheidole from the Southwest." J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 58: 89-93.
Gregg, R. E. (1952). "A new ant of the genus Pheidole from Colorado." Am. Mus. Novit. 1557: 1-4.
Gregg, R. E. (1953). "The soldier caste of Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) clydei Gregg (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Am. Mus. Novit. 1637: 1-7.
Gregg, R. E. (1955). "A new species of ant belonging to the Pheidole pilifera complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Psyche 62: 19-28.
Gregg, R. E. (1956). "An extension of range for the ant, Pheidole lamia Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Entomol. News 67: 37-39.
Gregg, R. E. (1959 ("1958")). "Key to the species of Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the United States." J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 66: 7-48.
Heterick, B. (1997). "The interaction between the coastal ant, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), and other invertebrate fauna of Mt Coot-tha (Brisbane, Australia)." Aust. J. Ecol. 22: 218-221.
Holldobler, B. and M. Moglich (1980). "The foraging system of Pheidole militicida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 27: 237-264.
Holldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson (1992). "Pheidole nasutoides, a new species of Costa Rican ant that apparently mimics termites." Psyche 99: 15-22.
Imai, H. T. and M. Kubota (1975). "Chromosome polymorphism in the ant Pheidole nodus." Chromosoma 51: 391-399.
Ito, F. and S. Higashi (1990). "Tests of four hypotheses on soldier production, by using wild colonies of Pheidole fervida F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Res. Pop. Ecol. 32: 113-117.
Kathirithamby, J. (1991). "Stichotrema robertsoni spec. n. (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae): the first report of stylopization in minor workers of an ant (Pheidole sp.: Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." J. Entomol. Soc. South. Afr. 54: 9-15.
Kempf, W. W. (1972). "A study of some Neotropical ants of genus Pheidole Westwood. I. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Stud. Entomol. 15: 449-464.
Kugler, C. (1979). "Alarm and defense: a function for the pygidial gland of the myrmicine ant, Pheidole biconstricta." Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72: 532-536.
Огненный муравей S. geminata и кочевой Neivamyrmex использованы в поведенческих тестах с P. biconstricta. E. ruidum & E. tuberculatum are conspicuous arboreal nectar feeders & are never seen foraging on the same plants as P. biconstricta. The other genera have large defensive glands & raise their gasters & threaten intruders with drops of defensive secretions.
Kusnezov, N. (1952 ("1951")). "El genero Pheidole en la Argentina (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Acta Zool. Lilloana 12: 5-88.
Kusnezov, N. (1952 ("1951")). "Un caso de evoluciуn eruptiva. Eriopheidole symbiotica nov. gen., nov. sp. (Himenoptera, Formicidae)." Mem. Mus. Entre Rнos 29: 5-31.
Li, S. and Y. Chen (1992). "Two new species of the ant genus Pheidole of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). [In Chinese]." J. Zhejiang Agric. Univ. 18(3): 55-57.
Marzluff, J.M. y K.P. Dial. 1991a. Life history correlates of taxonomic diversity. Ecology 72(2):428-439.
Marzluff, J.M. y K.P. Dial. 1991b. Does social organization influence diversification? Am. Midl. Nat. 125:126-134.
Naves, M. A. (1976). A monograph of the genus Pheidole in Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Ph.D. dissert., University of Florida, 120 p.
[Dissert. Abstr. Int. B 38: 499] [Order # 77-17046]
Naves, M. A. (1985). "A monograph of the genus Pheidole in Florida, USA (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Insecta Mundi 1: 53-90.
Oberprieler, R. 1999. The world’s richest family: the private life of weevils, pp. 66-69 in J.M. Anderson, ed., Towards Gondwana Alive. Pretoria, Gondwana Alive Society.
Ogata, K. (1982). "Taxonomic study of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood of Japan, with a description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Kontyu 50: 189-197.
Pheidole fervens, Pheidole fervida, Pheidole indica, Pheidole megacephala, Pheidole nodus, Pheidole pieli, Pheidole ryukyuensis
Onoyama, K. and M. Terayama (1999). "A new species of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood from Japan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Mem. Myrmecol. Soc. Jpn. 1: 65-69.
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Palomeque, T., E. Chica, et al. (1989 ("1988")). "Cytogenetic studies in the genera Pheidole and Tetramorium (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Mirmicinae)." Caryologia 41: 289-298.
Passera, L. (1978). "Une nouvelle categorie d'oeufs alimentaires: les oeufs alimentaires emis par les reines vierges de Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Formicide, Myrmicinae)." Insect. Soc. 25: 117-126.
Обнаружен новый тип трофических яиц, которые откладывают неоплодотворенные самки Pheidole pallidula
Passera, L. (1980). "La ponte d'oeufs preorientes chez la fourmi Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera - Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 27: 79-95.
Два варианта перевода названия статьи = The laying of eggs with predetermined caste by the ant Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Alternate title translation: = The laying of biased eggs by the ant Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Далее следует реферат. Pheidole pallidula has no winter brood. Sexuals are produced from the first spring brood: in three quarters of the colonies, at the end of hibernation, queens lay sexual-biased eggs. Later, all eggs are worker- biased. In the laboratory, at the end of hibernation, queens reared at 26°, lay sexual-biased eggs only during the first 15 days. At the end of the two weeks, eggs give only workers. During the first two weeks, the rate of egg production and the egg size rise to a maximum. The laying of sexual- biased eggs is not dependent on: -the number of nursing workers which may be very low; -the quality of nursing workers: for example workers that have been out of hibernation for several weeks and have already reared a brood, are capable of rearing of sexual brood. The soldiers, in workerless colonies, are also capable of rearing of these eggs; -the only necessity is the queen is just coming out of a long hibernation. If the queen is taken away after laying the first eggs, the workers, even not very many, rear the sexual larvae to males or queen pupae in about the half cases. In queen right colonies, the chance of succeeding is almost zero if the society has few workers. on the contrary, above 1400 workers, the queen is no obstacle. The number of workers/number of larvae ratio must be a determining factor. Pheidole pallidula shows a double caste determination: the autogenetic determination which separates queen and worker castes is succeeded by the larval trophogenic determination which is also at the origin of the soldiers.
Passera, L. (1985). Soldier determination in ants of the genus Pheidole. Caste differentiation in social insects. J. A. L. Watson, B. M. Okot-Kotber and C. Noirot. Oxford. xiv + 405 p., Pergamon Press: 331-346.
In ants, the soldiers originate from the same brood as the workers. In the genus Pheidole, the differentiation of the larvae of soldiers take place at the end of the third instar as there is no supplementary moult. Larval development of soldiers is characterized by the presence of a pair of mesothoracic wing imaginal discs. Wing buds can be seen on pupal teguments, then they disappear. In worker-biased larvae, however, the wing discs have not been found. Soldier-biased larvae arise only in colonies well-fed by many nursing workers. On the other hand the production of soldiers is inhibited when the percentage of adult soldiers is greater than a threshold which depends on the time of the year. At the end of hibernation this threshold is about 4 to 5%. Colonies of P. pallidula fed on prey injected with JHA result in differentiation of two or three times more soldier pupae than in controls. However, topical applications of JHA on larvae are ineffective in this species. but in other species (P. bicarinata and P. fervida) it is possible to induce soldier development by topical applications of JHA. Soldier differentiation is therefore sensitive to the level of JH. Polymorphism is also associated with changes in ecdysteroid levels. Using radio-immunoassay, ecdysteroid concentrations were measured in worker and soldier larvae of P. pallidula. Diffrences are observed between the two ways of development although their significance does nor seem very clear yet. All in all, differentiation of soldiers is the result of two types of events: environmental (social and climatic) factors and hormonal control.
Passera, L. and J. P. Suzzoni (1978). "Sexualisation du couvain de la fourmi Pheidole pallidula (Hymenoptera, formicidae) apres traitement par l'hormone juvenile." C. R. Hebd. Sean. Acad. Sci. Ser. D. Sci. Nat. 286: 615-618.
Получение расплода половых особей после обработки ювенильным гормоном
Passera, L. and J. P. Suzzoni (1978). "Traitement des reines par l'hormone juvenile et sexualisation du couvain chez Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." C. R. Hebd. Sean. Acad. Sci. Ser. D. Sci. Nat. 287: 1230-1233.
Результаты обработки ювенильным гормоном самок Pheidole pallidula и влияние на расплод
Passera, L. and J. P. Suzzoni (1979). "Activite comparee des hormones juveniles (JH I,JH II, JH III) sur le determinisme des castes chez Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)." C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D Sci. Nat. 289: 1315-1318.
Topic applications of JH I, JH II and JH III are made on queens one month after the end of hibernation. JH II is hardly effective: 1.6% of larvae are sexual. The best results are obtained with JH I (53.3% of larvae are sexual) but JH III also is effective (24.7% of larvae are sexual). Therefore we demonstrate that JH III is more effective on queen characteristic determination than on other morphogenic effects such as juvenilization.
Passera, L. and J. P. Suzzoni (1979). "Le role de la reine de Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Fromicidae) dans la sexualisation du couvain apres traitement par l'hormone juvenile." Insect. Soc. 26: 343-353.
[= The role of the queen of Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the brood sexualization after juvenile hormone treatment] In this work the authors report finding the target of JH action during caste determination. 1 - JH treatment of the queens Topical applications of JH on the queens in colonies raising worker brood lead to the appearance of numerous sexual larvae especially from the third week after the first treatment. The treatments are effective even if the society had given no sexual larvae in the field. therefore the JH acts on the queens during oogenesis. We obtained the best results by weekly applications of 1 and 0,1 µg. 2- JH treatment of the brood We have treted the eggs and the worker larvae of all three instars by soaking in JH. Only the treated eggs gave sexual larvae. treated larvae have always given workers. Therefore JH acts both during oogenesis and during embryogenesis. 3- JH treatment of the workers Workers fed on JH injected mealworm are unable to sexualize egg or larvae produced by queens deprived of JH. therefore it seems that in Pheidole pallidula the eggs are caste biased; this depends on the JH rate in the queen during oogenesis.
Passera, L. and J. P. Suzzoni (1984). "Caracteristiques biologiques de la ponte et des reines de Pheidole pallidula (Myrmicinae) а la sortie de l'hibernation: relations avec la nature de la descendance." Actes Coll. Insect. Soc 1: 219-224.
After overwintering Pheidole pallidula queens lay caste biased eggs; some of them lay queen-biased eggs, some worker-biased eggs and the other the two mixed kinds. We previously have shown that the production of the two kinds of eggs depended on juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid rates in the queen which also appeared in issued eggs. In the present work biological data are given about the different kinds of queens: 1) On the day of the end of hibernation, i.e. the day when the queens were transfered in experiment conditions (26°C), the 'queen-biased' queens were heavier than the 'worker-biased' ones. The difference was more evident: 10.06 mg vs. 9.45. 2) Five day later, i. e. the third day after the beginning of the egg- laying, the difference was more evident: 10.06 mg vs. 8.95. This short period is critical with respect to the caste-biasing; the 'queen-biased' queens did not loos weight (10.17 mg to 10.00) whereas the 'worker- biased' queens did (9.45 mg to 8.96). 3) Significant difference occurred in the ovideposition during the first day: the 'queen-biased' queens produced an average of 0.76 mg of eggs vs. 0.43 for the 'worker- biased' ones. On the third day of egg-laying, the respective figures brought closer: 3.19 mg vs. 2.90. 4) The queen-biased eggs are lighter than the 'worker- biased' ones. Those of the three first days weighed 8.4 µg an average in the first case and 8.9µg in the second. 5) The last two data show that the 'queen- biased' queens laid more eggs than the 'worker- biased' ones (358 vs. 305) during the first days which followed the end of the wintering. In summing up, the production of 'queen-biased' eggs results in a peculiar oogenesis of which the accomplishment is bound by internal (hormones) and external factors (feeding, overwintering, ageing and others).
Passera, L. and J. P. Suzzoni (1984). "La ponte d'oeufs preorientes par la fourmi Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.): caracteristiques biologiques des reines а la fin de l'hibernation." Insect. Soc. 31: 155-170.
Возможны два альтернативных перевода названия статьи. = Caste-biased egg-laying in the ant Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.): biological data related to the queens at the end of hibernation. Alternate title translation: = Laying of predetermined eggs by the ant Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.): biological characteristics of the queens at the end of hibernation. Далее следует реферат. After overwintering Pheidole pallidula queens lay caste-biased eggs; some of them lay queen-biased eggs, some worker-biased eggs and the other the two kinds mixed. Previously we showed that the production of the two kinds of eggs depends on concentration of juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid levels in queens as well as in eggs. In the present work biological data are given about the different kinds of queens. On the last day of hibernation, i. e. the day when the queen are transferred to experimental conditions (26° C), the 'queen-biased ' queens were heavier than the 'worker-biased' ones. The recorde mean-weights were 10.17 mg and 9.45 mg respectively. -Five days later, i.e. on the third day after the beginning of egg-laying the difference is more pronounced: 10.06 mg compared with 8.94 mg. This short period is critical with respect to the caste-biasing; the 'queen-biased' queens do not loose weight (10.17 mg to 10.00 mg) whereas the 'worker-biased' queens do (9.45 mg to 8.96 mg). - Significant differences occurred in oviposition during the first day: the 'queen-biased' queens produced an average of 0.76 mg of eggs against 0.43 mg for the 'worker-biased' ones. On the third day of egg-laying, the difference between them both is diminished: 3.19 mg against 2.90 mg. - Queen-biased eggs are lighter than worker-biase eggs. Those of the first days weighed 8.4µg in the mean in the first case and 8.9 µg in the second. -The last two data show that the 'queen-biased' queens laid more eggs than the 'worker-biased' queens (358 against 305) during the first days following overwintering. -It seems that 'queen-biased' queens are more attractive than others queens, get more food so increase their fat body reserves and their ability to lay eggs. Thus the production of queen-biased eggs results from a peculiar oogenesis governed by internal (hormones) and external factors (feeding, overwintering, ageing and others).
Passera, L., J. P. Suzzoni, et al. (1978). "Donnees histologiques sur la formation des oeufs reproducteurs et alimentaires chez Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Bull. Biol. Fr. Belg. 112: 3-12.
Гистологическое исследование репродуктивных и трофических яиц у Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.)
Smith, M. R. (1947). "A new and extraordinary Pheidole from New Guinea (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)." Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 49: 73-75.
Suzzoni, J. P. (1983). Le polymorphisme et son determinisme chez deux especes de fourmis: Plagiolepis pygmaea Latr. (Formicinae) et Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.) (Myrmicinae). Role des hormones de developpement, These d'Etat, Toulouse, 420 p.
Weber, N. A. (1948). "Termite-eating Pheidole larvae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Entomol. News 59: 31-35.
Wheeler, D. E. (1982). Soldier determination in the ant Pheidole bicarinata, Ph.D. dissert., Duke University, 196 p.
[Dissert. Abstr. Int. B 43: 3162] [Order # 8304668]
Wheeler, D. E. and H. F. Nijhout (1981). "Imaginal wing discs in larvae of the soldier caste of Pheidole bicarinata vinelandica Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Int. J. Insect Morphol. Embryol. 10: 131-139.
Wheeler, D. E. and H. F. Nijhout (1983). "Soldier determination in Pheidole bicarinata: effect of methoprene on caste and size within castes." J. Insect Physiol. 29: 847-854.
Wheeler, D. E. and H. F. Nijhout (1984). "Soldier determination in Pheidole bicarinata: inhibition by adult soldiers." J. Insect Physiol. 30: 127-135.
Wheeler, G.C. y J. Wheeler. 1953. The ant larvae of the myrmicine tribe Pheidolini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 55:49-84.
Wilson, E.O. 1975. Enemy specification in the alarm recruitment system of an ant. Science 190:798-800.
Wilson, E.O. 1976. Which are the most prevalent ant genera?
Stud. Entomol. 19:187-200. (Обзор PDF-копий >>>)
Wilson, E. O. (1976). "The organization of colony defense in the ant Pheidole dentata Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1: 63-81.
1. Colonies of Pheidole dentata employ a complex strategy of colony defense against invading fire ants. Their responses can be conveniently divided into the following three phases: (1) at low stimulation, the minor workers recruit nestmates over considerable distances, after which the recruited major workers ('soldiers') take over the main role of destroying the intruders; (2) when the fire ants invade in larger numbers, fewer trails are laid, and the Pheidole fight closer to the nest along a shorter perimeter; when the invasion becomes still more intense, the Pheidole abscond with their brood and scatter outward in all directions (Figs. 1, 4). 2. Recruitment is achieved by a trail pheromone emitted from the poison gland of the sting. Majors can distinguish trail laying minors that have just contacted fire ants, apparently by transfer of the body odor, and they respond by following the trails with more looping, aggressive runs than is the case in recruitment to sugar water. Majors are superior in fighting to the minors and remain on the battleground longer. 3. The first phase of defense, involving alarm-recruitment, is evoked most strongly by fire ants and other members of the genus Solenopsis; the presence of a single fire ant worker is often sufficient to produce a massive, prolonged response (Figs. 2, 5, 6). In tests with Solenopsis geminata, it was found that the Pheidole react both to the odor of the body surface and to the venom, provided either of these chemical cues are combined with movement. Fire ants, especially S. geminata, are among the major natural enemies of the Pheidole, and it is of advantage for the Pheidole colonies to strike hard and decisively, when the first fire ant scouts are detected. Other ants of a wide array of species tested were mostly neutral or required a large number of workers to induce the response. The alarm- recruitment response is not used when foragers are disturbed by human hands or inanimate objects. When such intrusion results in a direct mechanical disturbance of the nest, simulating the attack of a vertebrate, both minor and major workers swarm out and attack without intervening recruitment.
Wilson, E. O. (1984). "The relation between caste ratios and division of labor in the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 16: 89-98.
Ten species of Pheidole, representing as many species groups from various localities in North and South America, Asia, and Africa, were analyzed to probe for possible relationships between caste ratios and division of labor. Minor workers are behaviorally almost uniform among the species, but major workers vary in repertory from 4 to 19 behavioral acts (Table 1, Fig. 2). The major repertory size increases significantly across the species with the percentage of majors in the worker force (Fig. 3). This trend is consistent with the basic prediction of ergonomic optimization models under an assumption of colony-level selection. There is also atrend toward reduction of behavioral repertory with increase of size in the major relative to the minor, a second realtion expected from theory, but the data are not sufficient to reach statistical significance. When the minor:major ratio was lowered to below 1:1 (from the usual 3:1 to 20:1, according to species), in three widely different species (guilelmimuelleri, megacephala, pubiventris), the repertory size increased by 1.4-4.5X and the rate of activity by 15-30X (Table 1, Figs.4-6). The change occurred within 1h of the ratio change and was reversed in comparably short time when the original ratio was restored. This abrupt and important shift in behavior permitted the major workers to serve as an emergency stand-by caste, available to be summoned to a nearly full repertory when the minor worker caste was depleted. The majors also restored 75% or more of the missing minor workers' activity rate under laboratory conditions. Their transformation allowed continued oviposition of the queen and the rearing of larvae to the adult stage. In line with these findings, a distinction is made between programmed 'elasticity' in the repertory of individual workers and castes in the 'resiliency' of the colony as a whole, which depends upon the pattern of caste-specific elasticity.
Wilson, E. O. (1984). "Tropical social parasites in the ant genus Pheidole, with an analysis of the anatomical parasitic syndrome (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 31: 316-334.
Because social parasites are relatively rare in tropical ant faunas, new or poorly known forms deserve special attention. Two Pheidole species evidently parasitic on P. indica are here described as new species from India (P. lanuginosa, P. parasitica), while a previously known northers South American form, P. microgyna Wheeler, is redescribed and evaluated as a possible parasite of P. minutula or a closely related host species. Next, all of the nine certain or likely social parasites of Pheidole known worldwide are compared, and an anatomical parasitic syndrome is identified through character state analysis. The nine species appear to be independently evolved. the parasitic character states have tended to evolve within each of these species at different rates, and hence the evolution is interpreted as having been not only parallel among species but mosaic in nature within species (see table I). In spite of the lesser irregularities in this pattern, an overall trend is evident: the first changes to occur were loss of the worker caste ( a loss still incomplete in the overall slightly modified P. inquilina), reduction of size, lengthening of the scape, reduction of sculpturing on the body surface, and broadening of the postpetiole. These shifts were followedby reduction of the mandibles and the segments of the funiculus. The genera Anergatides and Bruchomyrma, each based on a single extremely advanced species, are placed in synonymy under Pheidole. The problematic genera Hagioxenus, parapheidole, and Sifolinia are compared with Pheidole and their status evaluated. The greater known diversity of parasitic ants in the temperate zones, as compared with the tropics, remains a key problem in the study of ant evolution. Whether the difference is genuine or an artifact of differential sampling cannot be determined until more intensive collecting is undertaken in the tropics.
Wilson, E. O. (1985). "Ants of the Dominican amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 1. Two new myrmicine genera and an aberrant Pheidole." Psyche 92: 1-9.
Wilson, E. O. (1985). "Between-caste aversion as a basis for division of labor in the ant Pheidole pubiventris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 17: 35-37.
When deprived of minor workers under experimental conditions, major workers of the ant Pheidole pubiventris dramatically increase their repertory and rate of activity, and the change is due in good part to the greater attention they pay the brood. When minor workers are reinstated in appropriate numbers, the majors reduce their attention to the immature stages to the ordinary, low levels. Their response consists of the active avoidance of minors while in the vicinity of the immature stages. however, majors do not turn from other majors near the brood as much as they do for the minors, and they do not avoid minors at all while in other parts of the nest. In addition, minors do not avoid either monors or majors anywhere in the nest. the result is a striking division of labor with reference to brood care.
Wilson, E. O. (1987 ("1986")). "The organization of flood evacuation in the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 33: 458-469.
Minor workers of Pheidole cephalica respond to small quantities of water placed in the nest entrance by making alarm runs through the nest, often ending at alternate entrances. They use odor trails to lead nestmates into the entrance galleries and sometimes away from the nest altogether. With this procedure one or two workers are able to mobilize a large fraction of the colony in 30 secs or less. Standing water by itself is enough to induce the response, but moving water, which provides both chemical and tactile stimuli, is still more effective. Purely tactile stimulation does not evoke the response, even when vigorous enough to knock workers over. On the other hand, invasion by a single fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) often causes alarm runs, which are combined with alarm-recruitment to produce a composite pattern of defense and retreat distinct from flood evacuation. The responses to flooding by 25 species of Pheidole in addition to P. cephalica have been tested. Some species react with both alarm runs and alarm waves, in which short loops generate broader and more slowly advancing fronts of excitement. Others respond with alarm waves alone. Alarm runs occur more frequently in species that nest in pieces of rotting wood, and hence typically excavate a linear array of nest galleries and chambers. They tend to be absent in species that nest in soil and hence to excavate a broader spread of cavities. The correlation proved significant in both the ' liberal ' test, in which all species were counted equally, and the ' conservative ' test, in which sets of closely related species were treated as single taxonomic units.
Wilson, E. O. and B. Holldobler (1985). "Caste-specific techniques of defense in the polymorphic ant Pheidole embolopyx (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Insect. Soc. 32: 3-22.
1. The queen of the Brazilian species Pheidole embolopyx is unique among ants in possessing a posteriorly truncated abdomen; in addition, the rear surface is clothed in unusual, hook-shaped hairs (fig.1-3). Contrary to expectation, however, our studies have shown that the queen does not use the abdomen to block nest entrances or otherwise to oppose opponents directly. 2. The queen is also unique in possessing gelatinous sheats on the scapes, anterior clypeal border, and frontal carinae. The sheats vary in size and shape among queens and on the same queen with time (fig. 4), and they are often absent altogether. These unusual structures seem to be neither especially attractive nor repellent to the P.embolopyx workers. 3. We offer a different explanation of the queen's modified anatomy. The truncation of the abdomen and gelatinous sheats are associated with flange-like protrusions of the pronotum and first gastric segment in an overall 'chelonian' (turtle-like) body form. The most vulnerable parts of the body are thus better protected from biting attacks, especially when the queen hides in tight spaces. But the meaning of this peculiar syndrome remains unknown. We believe it unlikely, for example, that the queen is a temporary social parasite. 4. Minor and major workers display different responses during recruitment and alarm-defense of the nest and food sources. these caste-specific behaviors are nevertheless coordinated to create efficient group-level reactions. Only the minor workers lay odor trails, which originate from the poison gland. Both castes cooperate in defending food finds, in the form of encircling clusters that persist for hours or even days. The minor workers seize the legs of intruding ants, while the major attack their bodies directly. Both castes communicate alarm by means of abdominal pheromones which in the case of the major worker has been pinpointed to the pygidial gland.
Wilson, E.O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus. Harvard University Pres. (Смотрите обзор >>>)
Zhou, S. (1999). "Taxonomic study of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood from Guangxi, with descriptions of three new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 24: 83-88.
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