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    Pachycondyla (5)

" " Pachycondyla.

Pachycondyla:   1-Intro  3-World  4-Reg  5-Lit


, , Pachycondyla

1758 - 2004

    Pachycondyla, Formis-2003 443 , 105 :

    1. Bingham, C.T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Ants and cuckoo-wasps. London : Taylor & Francis Vol. 2 507 pp.

    2. Brown, W.L. jr 1958. A review of the ants of New Zealand (Hymenoptera). Acta Hymen. 1: 1-50. PDF-

    3. Brown, W. L., Jr. (1995). [Untitled. Taxonomic changes in Pachycondyla attributed to Brown.], Pp. 302-311 in: Bolton, B. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp.

    4. Emery, C. 1901. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponerines (famille des Formicides). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 45: 32-54.

    5. Emery, C. 1911. Hymenoptera Fam. Formicidae Subfam. Ponerinae. in Wytsman. P. (ed.), Genera Insectorum. Brussels Fasc. 118 125 pp.

    6. Holldobler, B., E. Janssen, Bestmann H.J., Leal I.R., Oliveira P.S., Kern F., Konig W.A. (1996). "Communication in the migratory termite-hunting ant Pachycondyla (= Termitopone) marginata (Formicidae, Ponerinae)." J. Comp. Physiol. A Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 178: 47-53.
      Pachycondyla marginata Neocapritermes opacus . . , citronellal. Isopulegol elicited an increase in locomotory activity in the ants and may function as a synergist recruitment signal. The chemical signal is enhanced by a shaking display performed by the recruiting ant.

    7. Holldobler, B., Traniello, J. F. A. 1980. The pygidial gland and chemical recruitment communication in Pachycondyla (= Termitopone) laevigata. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 6 : 883893.

    8. Kempf, W. W. (1961). "As formigas do genero Pachycondyla Fr. Smith no Brasil (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Rev. Brasil. Entomol. 10: 189-204.

    9. Maschwitz, U., K. Jessen, et al. (1981). "Foaming in Pachycondyla: a new defense mechanism in ants." Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 9: 79-81.
      When disturbed, two species of Malayan Pachycondyla release foam threads more than 10 cm in length or foam piles. The source of the proteinaceous foam is the enlarged venom gland, which is probably frothed up by air from the spiracles of the spiracular plates. The Dufour's gland normally producing hydrocarbons in stinging ants is atrophied. Therefore, absence of the Dufour's gland could be essential to the foaming ability, since the lipophilic hydrocarbons inhibit froth production in protein solutions. The release of foam is a mechanically acting defense mechanism, which is very effective against small mass-attacking ants. Pachycondyla species are also able to sting effectively.

    10. Mayr, G.L. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: Abhand. 649-776.

    11. Mayr, G.L. 1867. Adnotationes in Monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschr. Entomol. 10: 33-117.

    12. Mill, A. E. (1982). "Emigration of a colony of the giant termite hunter, Pachycondyla commutata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)." Entomol. Mon. Mag. 118: 243-245.

    13. Orivel, J., M. C. Malherbe, et al. (2001). "Relationships between pretarsus morphology and arboreal life in ponerine ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Formicidae: Ponerinae)." Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94: 449-456.
      Morphological traits of the pretarsa, especially the tarsal claws and arolia, of 15 arboreal or ground-dwelling species of the genus Pachycondyla demonstrate that two types of morphologies exist. All of the arboreal and three of the ground-dwelling species have a well-developed arolium in the form of an adhesive pad, whereas the others do not. Moreover, the tarsal claws are spread and horn-shaped in the species of the first group, whereas they are straight and relatively close together in the species without the adhesive pad. The ability to walk upside down is strictly correlated to the presence of the pad. If a large adhesive pad cannot be considered as a morphological adaptation to arboreal life, it, at least, constitutes an indispensable characteristic for the advent of arboreal behavior.

    14. Orivel, J., V. Redeker, Le Caer, J.P., Krier, F., Revol-Junelles, A.M., Longeon, A., Chaffotte, A., Dejean, A., Rossier, J. (2001). "Ponericins, new antibacterial and insecticidal peptides from the venom of the ant Pachycondyla goeldii." J. Biol. Chem. 276: 17823-17829.

    15. Smith, F. 1858. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part 6. Formicidae. London : British Museum 216 pp.

    16. Wilson, E.O. 1958. Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia. III. Rhytidoponera in Western Melanesia and the Moluccas. IV. The tribe Ponerini. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 119: 301-371.

    17. Xu, Z. (1996). "A taxonomic study of the ant genus Pachycondyla from China ((Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae)." Zool. Res. 17: 211-216. PDF-

    18. Xu, Z. H. (1994). "A taxonomic study of the genus Pachycondyla Smith in China (Hyminoptera [sic]: Formicidae: Ponerinae)." Entomol. Res. 1: 103-112.


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